Google Scholar Citations
|Tom Novak is Albert O. Steffey Professor of Marketing and Co-Director of the Sloan Center for Internet Retailing at the University of California, Riverside, where he joined the faculty in July 2006. Novak’s research since 1993 has focused exclusively on Internet and Web based commerce. His current research areas include measuring the online consumer experience (motivations for using social media and virtual worlds, flow, and the design of compelling online environments); Internet marketing (business models, clickstream modeling, metrics, online panels); societal impact of the Internet (digital divide, Internet indispensability, trust, privacy), and social cognition (thinking style, emergent consumers in product innovation).
An internationally recognized academic researcher in Web-based commerce, Novak has published extensively on the topic in academic journals in a range of scholarly disciplines, including SCIENCE, Marketing Science, Journal of Marketing, Communications of the ACM, the Information Society, and Harvard Business Review. He has also been a contributing writer to both Wired and HotWired.
Prior to joining the faculty at the University of California, Riverside, Novak served on the faculties of Vanderbilt University, New York University, Columbia University, and Southern Methodist University. From 1995 through 1999, he spent summers as a visiting scholar at Paul Allen’s Interval Research Corporation, Palo Alto California, was a visiting scholar at Stanford University in the summers of 1997 and 2000, and was a visiting scholar at the USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism in Fall 2010.
Novak received his A.B. in Psychology from Oberlin College in 1977 and his M.A. (1980) and Ph.D. (1984, in quantitative psychology with a formal minor in Biostatistics) from the L.L. Thurstone Psychometric Laboratory at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
|All articles are the sole copyright of the respective publishers. Materials are provided for educational use only. These works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
Giebelhausen, M. and T.P. Novak (2011), “Web Advertising: Sexual Content on eBay,"Journal of Business Research (available online February 5, 2011)
Hoffman, D.L., P. Kopalle, and T.P. Novak (2010), “Identifying and Using Emergent Consumers in Developing Radical Innovations.” Journal of Marketing Research.
Novak, Thomas P. (2010), "eLab City: A Platform for Academic Research on Virtual Worlds,"Journal of Virtual Worlds Research.
Neslin, S.A., T.P. Novak, K.R. Baker, and D.L. Hoffman (2009), “An Optimal Contact Model for Maximizing Online Panel Response Rates,” Management Science 55(5), 727-737. (pdf)
Hoffman, D.L. and T.P. Novak (2009), “Flow Online: Lessons Learned and Future Prospects,” Journal of Interactive Marketing, 23(1), 23-34. (pdf)
Novak, T.P. and D.L. Hoffman (2009), “The Fit of Thinking Style and Situation: New Measures of Situation-Specific Experiential and Rational Cognition,” Journal of Consumer Research, 36 (June), 56-72. (pdf)
Hoffman, Donna and Thomas P. Novak (2005), “A Conceptual Framework for Considering Web-Based Business Models and Potential Revenue Streams,” International Journal of Marketing Education, 1 (1). (pdf)
Hoffman, Donna L., Thomas P. Novak, and Alladi Venkatesh (2004), “Has the Internet Become Indispensable?” Communications of the ACM, July, 47(7), 37-42. (pdf)
Chatterjee, P., D.L. Hoffman and T.P. Novak (2003), “Modeling the Clickstream: Implications for Web-Based Advertising Efforts,” Marketing Science, 22(4), 520-541. (pdf)
Novak, T.P., D.L. Hoffman, and A. Duhachek (2003), “The Influence of Goal-Directed and Experiential Activities on Online Flow Experiences,” Journal of Consumer Psychology,
13(1&2), 3-16 (lead article). (pdf)
Hoffman, Novak and Schlosser (2003), “Consumer Attitudes Toward Software Filters and Online Content Ratings: A Policy Analysis,” Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 22(1), 41-57. (pdf)
Novak, T.P., D.L. Hoffman, and Y.F. Yung (2000), “Measuring the Customer Experience in Online Environments: A Structural Modeling Approach,” Marketing Science, Winter, 19(1), 22-44. (pdf)
Hoffman, D.L., T.P. Novak and A. Schlosser (2000), "The Evolution of the Digital Divide: How Gaps in Internet Access May Impact Electronic Commerce," Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 5(3), (html)
Hoffman, Donna, Thomas P. Novak and Ann Schlosser (2003), "The Evolution of the Digital Divide: How Gaps in Internet Access May Impact Electronic Commerce,” in Charles Steinfield (ed.) New Directions in Research on E-Commerce. Chapter 12, Purdue University Press, 245-292.
Hoffman, D.L. and T.P. Novak (2000), “How to Acquire Customers on the Web,” May/June, Harvard Business Review, 179-188. (pdf)
Hoffman, D.L, T.P. Novak, and M.A. Peralta (1999), “Information Privacy in the Marketspace: Implications for the Commercial Uses of Anonymity on the Web,” The Information Society, Volume 15, Number 2, April-June, 129-140. (pdf)
Hoffman, D.L., T.P. Novak, and M.A. Peralta (1999) “Building Consumer Trust Online,” April, Communications of the ACM, Volume 42, Number 4, April, 80-85. (pdf)
Hoffman, D.L. and T.P. Novak (1998), "Bridging the Racial Divide on the Internet," Science, 280 (April 17), 390-391. (html)
Hoffman, D.L. and T.P. Novak (1998), “Division on the Internet?” Science, 281 (August 14), (response to letters regarding “Bridging the Racial Divide on the Internet”). (html)
Hoffman, D.L. and T.P. Novak (1997), "A New Marketing Paradigm for Electronic Commerce," The Information Society, Special Issue on Electronic Commerce, 13 (Jan-Mar.), 43-54. (pdf)
German translation reprinted in:
THEXIS, special issue on "Online Marketing," (1997), Jan, 39-43.
Novak, T.P. and D.L. Hoffman (1997), "New Metrics for New Media: Toward the Development of Web Measurement Standards," World Wide Web Journal, Winter, 2(1), 213-246. (pdf)
Russian translation reprinted in:
Research on the Internet: Humanitarian and Social Aspects, A. Voiskounsky, ed. 2000.
Hoffman, D.L. and T.P. Novak (1996), "Marketing in Hypermedia Computer-Mediated Environments: Conceptual Foundations," Journal of Marketing, 60 (July), 50-68. (pdf). * Winner of the 2005 AMA Sheth Foundation/Journal of Marketing Award for long-term contributions to the marketing discipline.
Marketing Communication Classics, (2000), Maureen Fitzgerald and David Arnott, eds. London: Business Press, pp. 261-290.
Hoffman, D.L., W.D. Kalsbeek and T.P. Novak (1996), "Internet and Web Use in the United States: Baselines for Commercial Development," Special Section on "Internet in the Home," Communications of the ACM, 39 (December), 36-46. (pdf)
Hoffman, D.L. and T.P. Novak (1996), "Perspectives: The Future of Interactive Marketing" Harvard Business Review, 74 (November-December), 161.
Hoffman, D.L., T.P. Novak, and P. Chatterjee. (1995), "Commercial Scenarios for the Web: Opportunities and Challenges," Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Special Issue on Electronic Commerce, 1(3), [lead article]. (html)
Electronic Commerce: Profiting from Business On-line, (1996) Layna Fischer, ed., Lighthouse Point FL: Future Strategies Inc., Book Division, pp. 107-136.
Readings in Electronic Commerce (1997), Ravi Kalakota and Andrew Whinston, eds., Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, pp. 29-53.
Web Marketing Insider (1996).
Novak, T.P. (1995), "MANOVAMAP: Graphical Representation of MANOVA in Marketing Research," Journal of Marketing Research, 32(3), 357-374. (pdf)
Kamakura, W.A., T.P. Novak, J.E.B.M. Steenkamp, & T.M.M. Verhallen (1994), "Identifying Pan-European Value Systems with a Clusterwise Rank-Logit Model," Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 8(4), 29-55. (pdf)
Ben-Akiva, M., M. Bradley, T. Morikawa, J. Benjamin, T. Novak, H. Oppewal, & V. Rao (1994) "Combining Choice Data with Survey Data," Marketing Letters, 5(4), 335-350. (pdf)
Novak, T.P. (1993), "Log-Linear Trees: Models of Market Structure in Brand Switching Data," Journal of Marketing Research, 30 (Aug.), 267-287, [lead article]. (pdf)
Steenkamp, J.E.B.M., T.M.M. Verhallen, J.H. Gouda, W.A. Kamakura, and T.P. Novak (1993), "De Zoektoch naar de Europese Consument: Heilige Graal of het Begin van een Kansrijke Missie? (The Quest for the Euroconsumer: Holy Grail or the Beginning of a Fruitful Mission?"), Tijdschrift voor Marketing, 27 (September), 17-23.
Novak, T.P., J. de Leeuw, & B. MacEvoy (1992), "Richness Curves for Evaluating Market Segmentation," Journal of Marketing Research, 29 (May), 254-267. (pdf)
Kamakura, W.A. & T.P. Novak (1992), "Value-System Segmentation: Exploring the Meaning of LOV," Journal of Consumer Research, 19 (June), 119-132. (pdf)
Novak, T.P. & B. MacEvoy (1990). "On Comparing Alternative Segmentation Schemes: The List of Values (LOV) and Values and Life Styles (VALS)", Journal of Consumer Research, 17, (June), 105-109. (pdf)
Novak, T.P. & Hoffman, D.L. (1990), "Residual Scaling: An Alternative to Correspondence Analysis for the Graphical Representation of Residuals from Log-Linear Models," Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25 (July), 351-370.
Hoffman, D.L. and T.P. Novak (1988), "A Short SAS Macro for Performing the Basic Equations of Correspondence Analysis," Computer Corner, TrAC, 7(3), 93-4.
Novak, T.P. & Stangor, C. (1987), "Testing Competitive Market Structures: An Application of Weighted Least Squares Methodology to Brand Switching Data," Marketing Science, 6, 1 (Winter), 82-97. (pdf)
Working Papers or Work Under Review
Massara, F., and T.P. Novak, “The Role of Context and Content on Recognition Accuracy: Differences Between Virtual Worlds and Traditional Web Environments” (in preparation for submission).
White, T.B., D.L. Hoffman and T.P. Novak, “Evidence and Consequences of Egocentric Accounting Biases in Consumer-Seller Relationships” (in preparation for submission).
Diehl, K. D.L. Hoffman, and T.P. Novak, “The Cognitive Costs of Online Search.” (in preparation for submission).
Hoffman, D.L. and T.P. Novak, “The Impact of Online Product Review Characteristics on Consumer Preferences” (in preparation for submission).
Hoffman, D.L. and T. P. Novak, “A Scale of Internet Indispensability” (in preparation for submission).
Hoffman, D.L. and T.P. Novak, “Are Brand Attitudes Contagious? Consumer Response to Organic Search Trends” (in preparation for submission).
Hoffman, D.L. and T.P. Novak. “Roles and Goals: Consumer Motivations to Use the Social Web” (in preparation for submission).
Novak, T.P. and D.L. Hoffman, “Motivations to use Virtual Worlds” (in progress).
Hoffman, D.L., T.P. Novak and J. Silva-Risso. Modeling the Relationship Between Online Search Trends and Brand Attitudes: A Longitudinal Perspective” (in progress).
Hoffman, D.L., Novak, T.P. and A. Schlosser, “Need for person and machine interactivity: Antecedents of customer experience” (in progress).
M. Riemann, D.L. Hoffman, and T.P. Novak, T.P. “The Neural Correlates of Task-Specific Thinking Style” (in progress).
Novak, T.P. and A. Godfrey, “Avatars as Interviewers in Virtual Worlds” (in progress).
Pan, X., Novak, T.P., “The Influence of Online Word-of-Mouth on Consumer Information Processing and Decision Making: Experiments in Virtual Worlds” (in progress).
Trusov, M., T.P. Novak, “Modeling the Spatial Clickstream in Second Life” (in progress).
Hoffman, D.L. and T.P. Novak, eds. (2005), “Beyond the Basics: Research-Based Rules for Internet Retailing Advantage,” eLab Press, Vanderbilt University. (pdf)
Refereed Chapters in Books
Hoffman, D.L. and T.P. Novak (in press), “Social Media Strategy,” Chapter to appear in Handbook on Marketing Strategy, eds., Venkatesh Shankar and Gregory S. Carpenter, Edward Elgar Publishing, Ltd.
Hoffman, D.L., T.P. Novak and R.Stein (in preparation),"Social Media," chapter to appear in The Digital Consumer , Russell Belk and Rosa Llama, Eds.
Novak, Thomas P. (2012), "Quality of Virtual Life (QOVL)" in Transformative Consumer Research for Personal and Collective Well Being, Mick, D., Pettigrew, S., Pechmann C., and Ozanne, J. eds, New York: Taylor and Francis.
Hoffman, D.L. and T.P. Novak (2003), 'A Detailed Analysis of the Conceptual, Logical and Methodological Flaws in the Article: "Marketing Pornography on the Information Superhighway," in Cyberspace Crime, D.S. Wall, ed., Ashgate Publishing Limited.
Hoffman, D.L. and T.P. Novak (2000), “The Growing Digital Divide: Implications for an Open Research Agenda,” in “Understanding the Digital Economy: Data, Tools and Research,” B. Kahin and E. Brynjolffson, eds. Cambridge: MIT Press (editorial review). (pdf)
Novak, T.P. and D.L. Hoffman (2000) “Advertising and Pricing Models for the Web,” in Internet Publishing and Beyond: The Economics of Digital Information and Intellectual Property, Deborah Hurley, Brian Kahin and Hal Varian, eds. Cambridge: MIT Press (editorial review). (pdf)
Novak, T.P., D.L. Hoffman, and A. Venkatesh (1998), “Diversity On The Internet: The Relationship Of Race To Access And Usage,” In Investing in Diversity: Advancing Opportunities for Minorities and the Media, Amy Garmer, Ed. Washington, D.C., The Aspen Institute. (pdf)
Letters, Comments and Reviews
Hoffman, D.L. and T.P. Novak (2010), “Retweet: A Digital Meditation on the Power of Twitter.” Video Essay.
Hoffman, D.L.., Novak, T.P. & M. Peralta (1999), “Con Game?” Information Impact Magazine, April 1999.
Hoffman, D.L. & Novak, T.P. (1998), “Trustbuilders vs. Trustbusters,” The Industry Standard, May 11.
Hoffman, D.L. & Novak, T.P. (1997), "Pushing Passive Eyeballs," Wired, 5.3, March.
Hoffman, D.L. & Novak, T.P. (1995), "Panning for Business Models in a Digital Gold Rush," HotWired, April 22.
Hoffman, D.L. & Novak, T.P, (1994), "Commercializing the Information Super Highway: Are We In for a Smooth Ride?" The Owen Manager, 15(2), 2-7. (pdf)
Hoffman, D.L. & Novak, T.P. (1994), "How Big is the Internet, HotWired, Aug. 18. (pdf)
Hoffman, D.L. & Novak, T.P. (1994), "Wanted: Net.census," Wired, 2.11, November. (pdf)
Hoffman, D.L. & Novak, T.P. (1994), "The Challenges of Electronic Commerce," HotWired (Intelligent Agent Section), December 29. (pdf)
Novak, T.P. (1991), "Additive Tree Representations of Market Structure in Brand Switching Data," Proceedings of the American Marketing Association's Advanced Research Techniques Forum, Beaver Creek, Colorado, June 16-19.
Novak, T.P. & Cramer, E.M. (1987), "Graphical Representation of MANOVA," Proceedings of the Statistical Graphics Section, American Statistical Association Annual Meeting, San Francisco, August 17-20.